SSH Commands - For Advanced SSH Commands Users

Published: 31st August 2005
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After some time, I thought id make up a list of SSH commands, So heres the list. Hope this helps people. Updated information of this article can be found here: SSH Commands ( http://forums.session9.co.uk/showthread.php?t=254 )



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ls Displays everything in the current directory



ls -a Displays all files, including hidden



ls -l Displays all files, along with the size and timestamp



tar -zxpf Uncompresses tar.gz files



tar -xpf Uncompresses .tar files



gunzip Uncompresses .gz files



cp Copies a file to a new file



mv Moves a file to a new file, or rename



mkdir Creates a directory



rmdir Deletes a directory



rm Deletes a file



rm -rf Deletes a directory



cd Moves to a directory



cd .. Moves to a lower directory



cd ~ Moves to your home directory



cd - Moves to the previous directory



pwd Displays the current directory



pico Edits a file



ftp Connect to a FTP server



lynx View a webpage



df Displays the hard drive stats



quota Displays your quota



uptime Displays the uptime of the server



uname -a Displays the operating system stats



whoami Displays your info



who Displays others connected to the server



last Displays the last login



whereis Tells where a file is located



BitchX IRC Client



mail Check your email



ps -x Displays processes your running



ps -a Displays all processes running



ps -ux Displays running processes, with CPU/Memory usage



kill Kills a process



kill -9 Kills an eggdrop process



killall Kills all running process of the same type



whatis Description of commands



man Displays help on the command



nano Same as Pico



Top - gives an overall view of what is going on with the server including memory usage, server load and running processes "q" to exit top



sar -q gives a report of the process list, 1 minute and 5 minute average load every 10 minutes since midnight server time



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tar -zcf filename.tar.gz file

Tars up the file or directory of your choice, replace filename.tar.gz with the name you want your tar file to have...with the tar.gz extension on the end and replace file with the file or directory you want to tar up. Can also use a path/to/file for both.



updatedb - Updates the locate/search DB

netstat -n -p

Useful to see who is connected to your server, this also resolves hostnames to IP addresses and the -p switch shows you what each person connected is doing and provides a PID for it if there is one... useful if you need to kill something



find / -user username

Replace username with a username of one of your account to find all the files that belong to them. Also useful to add the |more switch so you can scroll one screen at a time. Ever have a client who seems to show a lot more files than are actually in their home directory? This is how you find those files and fix them. Common problem is cpmove files that don't get properly deleted and get added to a users account.



/scripts/pkgacct2 username

Replace username with a user on your system. This should be done from the home directory. Useful for manually backing up an account if whm copy account doesn't work. Then just move (mv) the file to a home directory accessible via the web and chown user.user filename and chmod to 750 or 755 and you can wget it from a different server if need be



/scripts/restorepkg username

Once you've got the file and need to unpack it you use this command. The file should be in the /home directory to use this though. Remember username not cpmove-username.tar.gz



netstat -n -p

Useful to see who is connected to your server, this also resolves hostnames to IP addresses and the -p switch shows you what each person connected is doing and provides a PID for it if there is one... useful if you need to kill something



/scripts/restorepkg username

Once you've got the file and need to unpack it you use this command. The file should be in the /home directory to use this though. Remember folks.... username.... not cpmove-username.tar.gz



--help

Such as tar --help, similar to man it digs up info on any given command.



tail -10 filename

gives you the last 10 lines of a file. Can change the # to whatever you want.



cp -R fileordirectory path/to/destination.

the -R allows you to copy an entire directory to somewhere else.



kill -9

not just for eggdrops... it's called a "hard kill" and handy for killing off any stubborn process that refuses to die.



tar -zcf filename.tar.gz file

Tars up the file or directory of your choice, replace filename.tar.gz with the name you want your tar file to have...with the tar.gz extension on the end and replace file with the file or directory you want to tar up. Can also use a path/to/file for both.



RESTART SERVICES: service (service name) restart



Stop a service: service (service name) stop



Start a service: service (service name) start



Status (doesn't work on all): service (service name) status



On a RedHat CPanel server, here are the useful services:

bandmin

chkservd

cpanel crond

exim

httpd

mysql

named

proftpd

/scripts/adddns Add a Dns Entry



/scripts/addfpmail Install Frontpage Mail Exts



/scripts/addservlets Add JavaServlets to an account (jsp plugin required)



/scripts/adduser Add a User



/scripts/admin Run WHM Lite



/scripts/apachelimits Add Rlimits (cpu and mem limits) to apache



/scripts/dnstransfer Resync with a master DNS Server



/scripts/editquota Edit A User's Quota



/scripts/finddev Search For Trojans in /dev



/scripts/findtrojans Locate Trojan Horses



/scripts/findtrojans < /var/log/trojans



/scripts/fixtrojans < /var/log/trojans



/scripts/fixcartwithsuexec Make Interchange work with suexec



/scripts/fixinterchange Fix Most Problems with Interchange



/scripts/fixtrojans Run on a trojans horse file created by findtrojans to remove them



/scripts/fixwebalizer Run this if a user's stats stop working



/scripts/fixvaliases Fix a broken valias file



/scripts/hdparamify Turn on DMA and 32bit IDE hard drive access (once per boot)



/scripts/initquotas Re-scan quotas. Usually fixes Disk space display problems



/scripts/initsuexec Turn on SUEXEC (probably a bad idea)



/scripts/installzendopt Fetch + Install Zend Optimizer



/scripts/ipusage Display Ipusage Report



/scripts/killacct Terminate an Account



/scripts/killbadrpms Delete "Security Problem Infested RPMS"



/scripts/mailperm Fix Various Mail Permission Problems



/scripts/mailtroubleshoot Attempt to Troubleshoot a Mail Problem



/scripts/mysqlpasswd Change a Mysql Password



/scripts/quicksecure Kill Potential Security Problem Services



/scripts/rebuildippool Rebuild Ip Address Pool



/scripts/remdefssl Delete Nasty SSL entry in apache default httpd.conf



/scripts/restartsrv Restart a Service (valid services: httpd,proftpd,exim,sshd,cppop,bind,mysql)



/scripts/rpmup Syncup Security Updates from RedHat/Mandrake



/scripts/runlogsnow Force a webalizer/analog update



/scripts/secureit Remove non-important suid binaries



/scripts/setupfp4 Install Frontpage 4+ on an account



/scripts/simpleps Return a Simple process list. Useful for finding where cgi scripts are running from



/scripts/suspendacct Suspend an account



/scripts/sysup Syncup Cpanel RPM Updates



/scripts/ulimitnamed RH 6 only. Install a version of bind to handle many many zones



/scripts/unblockip Unblock an IP



/scripts/unsuspendacct UnSuspend an account



/scripts/upcp Update Cpanel



/scripts/updatenow Update /scripts



/scripts/wwwacct Create a New Account



CRON INFO:

Root crontab: crontab -e



To edit a users cron jobs: crontab -u username -e Replace username with the actual username of the client you want to edit.





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